Sunday, 31 July 2011

Further Research: Objects- Bras.

From my objects selection I have decided to take a closer look at bras!
In all varietys, shapes, sizes, fabrics and designs I have always found bras an interesting design piece (and with a love of textile design). Being a girl I have a distinct advantage of a great ability to collect research for this subject matter and not run the risk of looking like a bit of a perv. Let the good times roll.
Points of interest I may look futher into/include in my week's research are:

- Types of bras
- History of bras
- Surverys (primary and secondary): favourite bra make, style of bra, etc.
- Bra brands
- Styles of bras
- How fashion has dictated bra-styles
- Graphic Design specific about bras

Concept: Cameras/Conclusion.

At the end of my 'Concept: Cameras' research week I am really happy with my findings, and feel that I have already learnt a great deal about the technology, history and culture of cameras that I was oblivious too before. It has been interesting to find out the specific history of the Camera brand companies- such as the fact that many have associations with medical technology, and discovering just how dominated the camera market is by Asian companies (which I thought would be high, but not quite to the extent I discovered).
Also, from looking at some great examples of camera- specific Graphic Design, I've re-discovered by love of Illustrative Info-Graphics, and will certainly keep this in mind for the design development stage once I return to University, and the intensity of my Design Practice in September.

Concept: Cameras/Camera specific Graphic Design.

Researching and analyising Graphic Design which either employs the use of camera technology, or uses design to highlight specific camera- related topics- both through type and image.

A project by designer Drew Marshall, in which he was asked to develop a campaign for the 2011 Filmed by Bike festival (a showing of bike-themed films). In the posters he cleverly combines elements of bikes to construct his typeface- but my personal favourite is the small camera at the bottom right-hand corner. Good, simple idea- communicates easily to the audience.

A project by Norweigan Designer, Krister Lima in which she was asked to design a film magazine- one for a younger, and one for an older audience. Really like the bold illustrative style of the recorder and the minimal colours used- quite striking.

An identity and branding brief by Todd Asmus, comissioned by Wisconsin Photojournalist, Harlen Persinger.I really like the simple and recognisable elements that Todd has used in his design, that are instantly recognisable but still look unique and professional. The colour green was chosen to reflect Harlen's regular pursuits in landscape and agricultural Photography.

A 2008 student project by Graphic Designer Sean Ball. In his project he chose several Lomo Camera product designs and re-invented the packaging, to showcase the product and give a detailed description of the item simply from the packaging alone. Good designs- consistent logos and layouts ensure a good product range.

I love these Infographic Designs, celebrating 45 years of the Kodak Instimatic Camera, created by Brazilian Designer, Manuel Panameño. Brilliant use of colour and consisent, and impressive vector designs. I LOVE the camera timeline. I'd really like to go on to design a range of print-based works like these. Really inspiring stuff.

Branding design for Lomography cameras by Designer Zina Falewich. Not actually too much of a fan of these designs- maybe a little too much going on- too much colour and not simple enough, although I do like the style of Illustration used to create the camera images. I much prefer the simple line drawings, but perhaps they could benefit from a simple spot colour to ensure that they stood out and looked as exciting as the product in which they are trying to promote.

Last but certainly not least- I LOVE these double exposure portraits by Brighton-University Graphic Design student, Dan Mountford- and I'm not the only one. Dan was recently confronted by Gestalen to have his images on the cover of one of their new publications, 'The Modernist' which highlights recent-day culture in art and design of utilising traditional methods in a Modern approach. 
Dan uses images of his hometown of Brighton combined with simple, yet bold portriats for these fantastic images. Simply done but incredibly effective.

Concept: Cameras/ History of...LEICA.

Sourced from the Wikipedia 'Leica Camera' Page...Because I live dangerously...

Leica Camera AG, a German optics company, produces Leica cameras. The predecessor of the company, formerly Ernst Leitz GmbH, is now three companies: Leica Camera AG, Leica Geosystems AG, and Leica Microsystems AG, producing cameras, geosurvey equipment, and microscopes, respectively. Leica Microsystems AG is the owner of the Leica brand, and grants licences to Leica Camera AG and Leica Geosystems.


Before WWII

The first Leica prototypes were built by Oskar Barnack at Ernst Leitz Optische Werke, Wetzlar, in 1913. Intended as a compact camera for landscape photography, particularly during mountain trips, the Leica was the first practical 35 mm camera, using standard cinema 35 mm film. The Leica transports the film horizontally, extending the frame size to 24×36 mm, instead of the 18×24 mm used by cinema cameras which transported the film vertically, with a 2:3 aspect ratio.
The Leica went through several iterations, and in 1923 Barnack convinced his boss, Ernst Leitz II, to make a prototype series of 31. The camera was an immediate success when introduced at the 1925 Leipzig Spring Fair as the Leica I (for Leitz camera). The focal plane shutter had a range from 1/20 to 1/500 second, in addition to a Z for Zeit (time) position.
Because Barnack's concept for the Leica was to use a small camera, producing a small negative, to make a big picture by enlargement, ("small negative, large picture" concept) the camera needed high quality lenses to create sharp negatives. The first Leica lens was a 50 mm f/3.5 design based on the Cooke triplet of 1893 adapted by Professor Max Berek at Leitz. The lens had five elements in three groups and was called the Leitz Anastigmat. Unlike other triplets, the Leitz Anastigmat had the diaphragm placed between the first and second elements. This lens was later renamed the ELMAX, for E Leitz and MAX Berek. By 1925 the Leitz laboratories had produced glasses with improved optical properties and Professor Berek designed an improved version of the ELMAX called the ELMAR with four elements in three groups. Professor Berek had two dogs, Hektor and Rex. The first of these, Hektor, gave his name to a series of Leica lenses, and the name of the second appeared in the SummaREX.
In 1930 came the Leica I Schraubgewinde with an exchangeable lens system based on a 39mm diameter screw thread, often referred to as " Leica Thread Mount" or LTM. In addition to the 50mm normal lens, a 35mm wide angle and a 135 mm telephoto lens were initially available. In the mid-1930s, a legendary soft-focus lens, the Thambar 90mm f2.2 was designed, and made in small numbers between 1935 and 1949, no more than 3000 units. It is a rare collector's item today.
The Leica II came in 1932, with a built in rangefinder coupled to the lens focusing mechanism. This model had a separate viewfinder (showing a reduced image) and rangefinder. In 1932 the flange to filmplane was standarised to 28.8mm, first implemented on Leica model C, and the Leica Standard the following year.
The Leica III added slow shutter speeds down to 1 second, and the model IIIa added the 1/1000 second shutter speed. The IIIa was the last model made before Barnack’s death, and therefore the last model for which he was wholly responsible. Leitz continued to refine the original design through to 1957. The final version, the IIIg, included a large viewfinder with several framelines. These models all had a functional combination of circular dials and square windows.
Early Leica cameras bear the initials D.R.P., which stands for Deutsches Reichspatent, the name for German patents before May 1945. This is probably a reference to German patent No. 384071 "Rollfilmkamera" granted to Ernst Leitz, Optische Werke in Wetzlar, on 3 November 1923.

After WWII

After the war, Leitz continued to produce the late versions of the Leica II and the Leica III through the 1950s. However, in 1954, Leitz unveiled the Leica M3 introducing the new Leica M mount, a bayonet type lens mount. The new camera also combined the rangefinder and viewfinder into one large, bright viewfinder with a brighter double image in the center. This system also introduced a system of parallax compensation. In addition, it had a new rubberized, reliable, focal-plane shutter. This model has continued to be refined (the latest versions being the M7 and MP, both of which have frames for 28, 35, 50, 75, 90, and 135 mm lenses which show automatically upon mounting the different lenses).
Post-war models bear the initials DBP, standing for Deutsches Bundespatent (Federal German Patent), instead of the DRP found on pre-war models.
A number of camera companies built models based on the Leica rangefinder design. These include the Leotax, Nicca and early Canon models in Japan, the Kardon in USA, the Reid in England and the FED and Zorki in the USSR.

Factory Upgrades

Leitz offered factory upgrades for earlier model cameras until at least the middle of the 1950s. Many cameras were sent back to the factory and upgraded to the latest model's specification. The converted camera kept the original camera's serial number.

Single-lens reflex cameras

From 1964, Leica produced a series of single-lens reflex cameras, beginning with the Leicaflex, followed by the Leicaflex SL, the Leicaflex SL2, and then the R series from R3 to R7, made in collaboration with the Minolta Corporation. The Leica R8 was entirely designed and manufactured by Leica. The current model is the Leica R9, which can be fitted with the Digital Module back. Leica was slow to produce an auto-exposure model, and never made a Leica R model that supported auto-focusing. Leica's U.S. official website announced (25 March 2009) that the R-series has been discontinued. The reason given was that "new camera developments have significantly affected the sales of Leica R cameras and lenses resulting in a dramatic decrease in the number sold. Sadly, therefore, there is no longer an economic basis on which to keep the Leica R-System in the Leica production programme."

Conceptually bridging the Rangefinder Leicas and the SLR Leicas was the Leica Visoflex System, a mirror reflex box which attached to the lens mount of Leica rangefinders (separate versions were made for the screwmount and M series bodies) and accepted lenses made especially for the Visoflex System. Rather than using the camera’s rangefinder, focusing was accomplished via a groundglass screen. A coupling released both mirror and shutter to make the exposure. Camera rangefinders are inherently limited in their ability to accurately focus long focal-length lenses and the mirror reflex box permitted much longer length lenses.
In the course of its history, Leitz was responsible for numerous optical innovations, such as aspherical production lenses, multicoated lenses, and rare earth lenses. Leica optics are advertised as offering superior performance at maximum aperture, making them well-suited for natural-light photography.

The earliest Leica reflex housing was the PLOOT (Leitz's five letter code for its products), announced in 1935, along with the 200mm f/4.5 Telyt Lens. This date is significant because that it places Leica among the 35mm SLR pioneers. Moreover, until the 1964 introduction of the Leicaflex, the PLOOT and Visoflex were Leica’s only SLR offerings. A redesigned PLOOT was introduced by Leica in 1951 as the Visoflex I. This was followed by a much more compact Visoflex II in 1960 (which was the only Visoflex version available in both LTM (screwmount) and M-bayonet) and the Visoflex III with instant-return mirror in 1964. Leica lenses for the Visoflex system included focal lengths of 65, 180 (rare), 200, 280, 400, 560, and 800mm. In addition, the optical groups of many rangefinder lenses could be removed, and attached to the Visoflex via a system of adapters. The Visoflex system was discontinued in 1984.
Leica offered a wide range of accessories: for instance, LTM (screwmount) lenses were easily usable on M cameras via an adapter. Similarly Visoflex lenses could be used on the Leicaflex and R cameras with an adapter. Furthermore, certain LTM and M rangefinder lenses featured removable optical groups which could be mounted via adapters on the Visoflex system, thus making them usable as rangefinder or SLR lenses for Visoflex-equipped Screwmount and M rangefinder cameras, as well as being usable on Leicaflex and R cameras. Leica also carried in their catalogues focusing systems such as the Focorapid and Televit which could replace certain lenses’ helicoid mounts for sports and natural-life telephotography.

Company changes

In 1986, the Leitz company changed its name to Leica (LEItz CAmera), due to the strength of the Leica brand. At this time, Leica moved its factory from Wetzlar to the nearby town of Solms. In 1996 Leica Camera separated from the Leica Group and became a publicly held company. In 1998 the Leica group split into 2 independent units: Leica Microsystems and Leica Geosystems.


The Leica is particularly associated with street photography, especially in the mid-to-late 20th century, being used by such noted photographers as Henri Cartier-Bresson.
Leica cameras, lenses, accessories and sales literature are collectibles. There are dozens of Leica books and collector’s guides, notably the 3-volume Leica, an Illustrated History by James L. Lager. Early or rare cameras and accessories can reach very high prices on the market. Notably, Leica cameras sporting military markings carry very high premiums; this started a market for refurbished Soviet copies with fake markings.

Leica and Panasonic

Leica-branded lenses are used on many Panasonic digital cameras (Lumix) and video recorders. These lenses are manufactured by Panasonic to Leitz quality standards. Collaboration between the two firms extends at all levels, with engineering teams contributing in areas of respective expertise. Panasonic/Leica models were the first to incorporate optical image stabilization in their digital cameras.

List of Leica cameras and lenses

Early models

  • Leica I — was first introduced to the market at the 1925 spring fair in Leipzig, based on the Ur-Leica prototype developed by Barnack in 1913 and the Prototyp 1 developed in 1923. Followed by Leica Luxur and Leica Compur (a total of 60,586 of the Leica I, Luxur and Compur models were made). Interchangeable lenses for these were introduced in 1930.
Leica 35mm series with interchangeable lens screw mount style Leica bodies:
  • Leica Standard — 1932. The first Leica camera designed with a film-to-lensflange distance of 28.8 millimeters.
  • Leica II — 1932. The first Leica camera with a rangefinder.
  • Leica III — 1933. Leica incorporates slow shutter speeds on this model.

C (point and shoot) series

  • Z2X
  • C1
  • C2
  • C3
  • Leica Minilux 40mm
  • Leica Minilux Zoom
  • Leica CM 40mm
  • Leica CM Zoom

M (rangefinder) series

  • M3 — 1954–66 (Total 200,000 units manufactured) Introduced at the German Photokina exhibition in 1954, the M3 was the first of the M series Leicas, a line that is still manufactured today, and featured the first Leica body with a bayonet-style mount for interchangeable lenses. In an advertisement from 1956, it was regarded as a "lifetime investment in perfect photography". The M3 has a .92 magnification finder, the highest of any M camera made. The price of this high magnification was that a 35mm lens required "goggles" which fit in front of the view/rangefinder windows to facilitate a wider view. The M3 advanced film via a lever rather than knob, the first M3s required two strokes to advance the film, after 1958 M3's were single-stroke. Early M3s lacked a frame preview selector lever to switch between framelines.
  • MP — 1956–57 (Total 402 sets were manufactured). The original MP was based on the M3 and could be fitted with a Leicavit trigger winding device. MP originally stood for "M Professional"; the camera was intended to be a photojournalist's camera. The "M" within the nomenclature of this series Leica is from "Meßsucher," German for a combined rangefinder and viewfinder.
  • M2 — 1958–67 (88,000 sets were manufactured). A scaled-down and lower-cost version of the M3, the M2 had a simplified rangefinder of 0.72 magnification, allowing easier use of 35mm lenses. The 0.72 magnification became the standard viewfinder magnification for future M cameras. The M2 lacked the self-resetting film frame counter of its predecessor.
  • M1 — 1959–64 (9,392 sets were manufactured). A stripped-down version of the M2 for scientific/technical use, the M1 was a viewfinder camera with no built-in rangefinder. Replaced in 1965 by the MD (with no viewfinder at all), and the MDa (based on the M4) (1967), and finally the MD-2 (based on the M4-2) (1980).
  • M4 — 1967–75 (50,000 sets were manufactured); 1974–75 (6,500 sets were manufactured). With added rangefinder framelines for 35mm and 135mm lenses. Introduced the canted rewind crank (the previous Ms had rewind knobs). With the M5, was the last M camera to have a self-timer.
  • M5 — 1971–75 (31,400 sets were manufactured). With added integral TTL lightmeter. First Leica with a light meter, a mechanical swinging-arm CDS cell positioned behind the lens. The added functionality required a redesigned, larger body compared with the traditional M3 dimensions. Certain wide angle lenses (early 21mm f4.0 and f3.4) could not be used in the camera without modification because of the possibility of damage to the rear element of the lens or the meter arm. For similar reasons, collapsible lenses could not be collapsed on the M5. These restrictions also held true for the Leica CL (below). With the M4, last M camera to have a self-timer.
  • CL — 1973–76 (the compact Leica). Leitz-Minolta CL, introduced with 2 lenses special to that model: the 40mm Summicron-C f2 and 90mm Elmar-C f4. Internal metering similar to the M5 — CDS cell on a swinging stalk. The CL is also notable for being the only M-bayonet camera to have a vertically-travelling shutter. Minolta later manufactured and sold an improved electronic version, the Minolta CLE with Auto Exposure, Off-The-Film TTL metering and TTL Flash metering, together with three M-Rokkor lenses, the 40mm/f2, 28mm/f2.8 and 90mm/f4.
  • M4-2 — 1977–80 (17,000 sets were manufactured). First M to be manufactured since 1975. With stronger gears for the adaptation of a motor drive. First M with hotshoe for electronic flash. No self-timer. Made in Canada.
  • M4-P — 1980–86. Added rangefinder framelines for the 28mm and 75mm lenses.
  • M6 — 1984–98. A camera that first combined the M3 form factor with a modern, off-the-shutter light meter with no moving parts and LED arrows in the viewfinder. Informally referred to as the M6 "Classic" to distinguish it from the "M6 TTL" models, and to indicate its "Classic" M3 dimensions.
  • M6J — 1994. A collector's edition of 1,640 cameras to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Leica M System. Notable for its introduction of the 0.85 magnification finder, the first high-magnification finder since 1966, and the basis for the 0.85 cameras to follow starting in 1998.
  • M6 0.85 — 1998. The M6 could be optionally ordered with a .85 magnification viewfinder for easier focusing with long lenses and more accurate focusing with fast lenses, such as the 50mm/f1.0 Noctilux and 75mm/f1.4 Summilux. The 28mm framelines are dropped in this model. 3,130 of these cameras were made (all black chrome), so they are among the rarer non-commemorative M6's.
  • M6 TTL — 1998–2002. With .72 and .85 viewfinder versions. From 2000 the .58 viewfinder camera for eyeglass wearers are added to the line. Supported TTL flash. The added electronics added 2mm of height to the top plate, and the shutter dial was reversed from previous models (traditionally, turning clockwise increased shutter speed).
  • M7 2002. Has TTL exposure, aperture priority and manual exposure, electronic shutter and two mechanical speeds of 1/60 and 1/125. Comes in .58, .72, and .85 viewfinder formats, each with different brightline framelines. Same taller top plate and counter-clockwise shutter dial as the M6 TTL.
Leica even produced an M7 made of solid titanium, and offered it in a kit with 1 or several like titanium colored lenses.
  • MP — 2003 — current model (as of 2008). A homage to the original MP, the new MP (this time standing for "Mechanical Perfection") cosmetically resembles the original (even down to changing the rewind crank back to a knob) but is functionally closer to the M6 Classic. A notable improvement over the M6 was the modification of the rangefinder to eliminate flare. The Leicavit M is an accessory introduced with the new MP, allowing trigger wind with the right hand at speeds up to 2–2.5 frame/s. The new MP is available in chrome and black paint and with viewfinders of .58, .72 and .85 magnification.
  • A La Carte Program 2004 — present. Program to facilitate custom-built combinations of metal finish, leather type, viewfinder magnification, and custom engraving.
  • M8 — 2006–09. The M8 was the first digital M introduced, featuring a 10.3 megapixel sensor. The sensor is a 1.3 crop of standard 35 mm film, which gives the M8 an enlarged perspective in comparison to its predecessors.
  • M8.2 — 2008–09. A slightly updated edition of the Leica M8, featuring a quieter shutter, sapphire glass LCD screen cover, new leather coatings, etc.
  • M9 — 2009 — current model. The first full frame digital camera in the series, introduced on September 9, 2009.

R (35mm film SLR and dSLR) series

  • Leicaflex — 1964/5 — sometimes called the Standard — built-in external light meter, clear focusing screen with centre microprism spot. There was a great deal of pressure to introduce a Leica SLR because of the phenomenal success of the Nikon F (1959).
  • Leicaflex SL and SL MOT — 1968 — TTL selective-area metering, slightly taller body than its predecessor, long-lived and lovely to use. MOT model took a large and heavy motor drive. Only about 1,000 SL MOTs were made.
  • Leicaflex SL2/SL2 MOT — 1974 — refinement of the SL with more sensitive light meter and improved body shape. Thought by some to be the toughest 35mm SLR ever built. The Leica Solms museum has on display an SL2 MOT with Motor and 35mm Summicron which survived a 25,000-foot (7,600 m) fall from a Phantom II fighter jet: battered but in one piece, and deemed repairable by Leica. Only about 1,000 SL2 MOTs were made. The SL2 was the swan-song of the Leicaflexes; the SL2 reportedly cost Leitz more to manufacture than it recouped in sales, and motivated the company to collaborate with Minolta for their next series of electronic cameras. The SL2 would also be the last mechanical Leica SLR for 14 years.
  • Leica R3 — the first electronic Leitz SLR — 1976 to 1980, based upon the Minolta XE1/7. The first few were built in Germany and then production was transferred to the Leitz Portugal factory.
  • R4MOT/R4/R4S/R4S Mod2 — 1980–87 a new compact model based upon the Minolta XD11. The R4 set the design for all cameras up to and including the R7. The R4 offered Program mode, Aperture and Shutter Priority, and Manual, with Spot and Centerweighted metering. The R4MOT differed in designation only; all R4s and up accepted motors and winders. The R4 offered The R4S and R4S Mod2 were simplified models at slightly lower prices.
  • Leica R4.
  • Leica R5 and R-E — 1987 — revised electronics (R5 had TTL flash capability), the RE was a simplified model.
  • Leica R6 — 1988–92 mechanical shutter, relied on battery power only for the built-in light meter.
  • R6.2 — 1992 — as R6 but with refinements, including a 1/2000th shutter speed.
  • Leica R7 — 1992 — yet more advanced electronics.
  • Leica R8 — complete redesign, this time in-house with production moved back to Germany. All traces of Minolta gone.
  • Leica R9 — refinement of the R8 with 100g less weight and a new anthracite body finish. This model and its range of lenses was discontinued in 2009.
  • R8/R9 DMR Digital Module-R — 10 megapixel digital back for the R8/R9, making them the first 35mm SLR cameras able to capture to film or digitally. This unit was discontinued in 2008.
  • Leica R10 — Leica announced in July 2009 that no R10 will be forthcoming.

S (medium format dSLR) series

  • Leica S1 — The Leica S1 Pro is a scanner camera with a very high resolution (26 megapixels) for stationary use introduced in 1996. On a 36×36 mm2 sensor 5140×5140 pixels get scanned and optically transferred to a connected computer. The object lens adapter system was exchangeable, thus object lenses of the systems Leica R, Leica M, Hasselblad, Mamiya 4, 5×6, and all mechanic object lenses from Canon (FD), Nikon, etc. can be used with the S1. The software for the S1 is a special SilverFast version, originally developed by LaserSoft Imaging for high-end scanners. Approximately 160 cameras were built and mostly sold to museums, archives and research institutes. Later on Leica introduced the S1 Highspeed with very quick scanning and the S1 Alpha with half the resolution to the market.
  • Leica S2 — In 2008, Leica announced plans to offer an "S-System" DSLR with a Kodak-made bespoke CCD sensor measuring 30×45 mm and containing 37 million pixels. This sensor has a 26% longer diagonal and 56% larger area than a "full-frame″ 24×36 mm DSLR sensor and will output an approximately 5000x7500 pixel image. The S2 will thus essentially be a medium format camera in a "35 mm SLR"-sized body. The new "Maestro" imaging processor used in the S2 was developed by Fujitsu and the autofocus system (Leica's first to see production) was developed in house. The S2 series body, lenses and accessories will be available as of October 2009, and retail prices have been announced. A series of new Leica lenses is manufactured specifically for the S2 and Leica claims they will offer unsurpassed resolution and contrast at all apertures and focusing distances, even exceeding the sensor's capabilities. Lenses offered for the S2 will include Summarit-S's in normal (70 mm), wideangle (35 mm), and macro (120 mm) varieties, and Tele-Elmar (180 mm) portrait-length telephotos; these will also be available in versions featuring integrated multi-leaf blade shutters ("Central Shutter", or CS), in addition to the focal-plane shutter in the camera body, to enable higher flash sync speeds.

Digilux (digital) series

  • Digilux
  • Digilux Zoom
  • Digilux 4.3
  • Digilux 1
  • Digilux 2
  • Digilux 3
  • R8/R9 DMR Digital Module R (DSLR)

Digital compact camera series

  • C-Lux series.
  • D-Lux series
  • V-Lux bridge camera series
  • X series. Introduced with the Leica X1 on September 9, 2009. APS-C size sensor in a compact body. No viewfinder (hotshoe finder optional), fixed prime lens.

Leica M lenses

  • Tri-Elmar-M 16-18-21mm f/4 ASPH.
  • Tri-Elmar-M 28–35–50mm f/4 ASPH.
  • Summilux-M 21mm f/1.4 ASPH.
  • Elmarit-M 21mm f/2.8
  • Elmarit-M 21mm f/2.8 ASPH.
  • Super-Angulon-M f/3.4
  • Super-Angulon-M f/4.0
  • Summilux-M 24mm f/1.4 ASPH.
  • Elmarit-M 24mm f/2.8 ASPH.
  • Elmar-M 24mm f/3.8 ASPH.
  • Summicron-M 28mm f/2 ASPH.
  • Elmarit-M 28mm f/2.8
  • Elmarit-M 28mm f/2.8 ASPH.
  • Summilux-M 35mm f/1.4 ASPH.
  • Summicron-M 35mm f/2
  • Summicron-M 35mm f/2 ASPH.
  • Summarit-M 35mm f/2.5
  • Noctilux-M 50mm f/1.2
  • Noctilux-M 50mm f/1
  • Noctilux-M 50mm f/0.95 ASPH.
  • Summilux-M 50mm f/1.4
  • Summilux-M 50mm f/1.4 ASPH.
  • Summicron-M 50mm f/2
  • Summarit-M 50mm f/2.5
  • Elmar-M 50mm f/2.8
  • Summilux-M 75mm f/1.4
  • Apo-Summicron-M 75mm f/2 ASPH.
  • Summarit-M 75mm f/2.5
  • Elmarit-M 90mm f/2.8
  • Apo-Summicron-M 90mm f/2 ASPH.
  • Summarit-M 90mm f/2.5
  • Macro-Elmar-M 90mm f/4
  • Apo-Telyt-M 135mm f/3.4

: Noctilux means f/0.95-f/1.2, Summilux means f/1.4, Summicron means f/2, Summarit means f/2.5 in the current lineup, Elmarit means f/2.8, and Elmar means f/3.5-f/4. Noct, Lux and Cron are commonly used as short forms for Noctilux, Summilux and Summicron, respectively. For example, 50 Cron uniquely identifies the Summicron-M 50mm f/2 construction, although the exact version is not specified. Many Leica M lenses went through several revisions through the years.

Leica R lenses

  • Leica 15mm f/3.5 Super-Elmar-R — 1980 (Carl Zeiss design)
  • Leica 15mm f/2.8 Super-Elmarit-R ASPH — 2001
  • Leica 16mm f/2.8 Fisheye-Elmarit-R — 1970
  • Leica 19mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 1st version
  • Leica 19mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 2nd version — 1990
  • Leica 21mm f/4.0 Super-Angulon-R — 1968–92 (Schneider-Kreuznach design)
  • Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Angulon-R — 1968 (Schneider-Kreuznach design)
  • Leica 24mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R — 1970 (Minolta design and glass production)
  • Leica 28mm PC-Super-Angulon-R (Schneider-Kreuznach design)
  • Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 1st version — 1970
  • Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 2nd version — 1994
  • Leica 35mm f/4.0 PA-Curtagon-R (Schneider-Kreuznach design)
  • Leica 35mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 1st version — 1964
  • Leica 35mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 2nd version
  • Leica 35mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 3rd version
  • Leica 35mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 4th version (Built-in lens hood; 55mm filter)
  • Leica 35mm f/2.0 Summicron-R 1st version — 1970
  • Leica 35mm f/2.0 Summicron-R 2nd version — 1976
  • Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-R
  • Leica 50mm f/2.0 Summicron-R 1st version — 1964
  • Leica 50mm f/2.0 Summicron-R 2nd version — 1977 (Built-in lens hood, 3-cam and R-cam only version)
  • Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-R 1st version
  • Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-R 2nd version
  • Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-R 3rd version — 1997 (ROM contacts)
  • Leica 60mm Macro-Elmarit-R 1st version — 1972 — outside bayonet lens hood fitting
  • Leica 60mm Macro-Elmarit-R dn2 version
  • Leica 75mm f/2.0 Elcan-R code C-341 — Extremely rare
  • Leica 80mm f/1.4 Summilux-R
  • Leica 90mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 1st version — 1964–96
  • Leica 90mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 2nd version — 1983
  • Leica 90mm Summicron-R 1st version — 1969
  • Leica 90mm Summicron-R 2nd version -
  • Leica 90mm APO-Summicron-R ASPH — 2002
  • Leica 90mm f/1.0 Elcan-R — Extremely rare
  • Leica 100mm f/4.0 Macro-Elmar-R bellows version
  • Leica 100mm f/4.0 Macro-Elmar-R helical version
  • Leica 100mm f/2.8 APO-Macro-Elmarit-R
  • Leica 135mm Elmarit-R 1st version — 1965
  • Leica 135mm Elmarit-R 2nd version
  • Leica 180mm Elmar-R — 1976
  • Leica 180mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 1st version
  • Leica 180mm f/2.8 Elmarit-R 2nd version
  • Leica 180mm f/3.4 APO-Telyt-R — 1975–98
  • Leica 180mm f/2.8 APO-Elmarit-R — 1998
  • Leica 180mm f/2.0 APO-Summicron-R
  • Leica 180mm f/3.4 Elcan-R code C-303 — Extremely rare
  • Leica 250mm f/4.0 Telyt-R 1st version —
  • Leica 250mm f/4.0 Telyt-R 2nd version
  • Leica 280mm f/4.8 Telyt-V
  • Leica 280mm f/4.0 APO-Telyt-R
  • Leica 280mm f/2.8 APO-Telyt-R — 1984–97
  • Leica 350mm f/4.8 Telyt-R
  • Leica 400mm f/6.8 Telyt-R — 1968–94
  • Leica 400mm f/5.6 Telyt-R
  • Leica 400mm f/2.8 APO-Telyt-R — 1992–96
  • Leica 450mm f/5.6 Elcan-R, code C-329 — Extremely rare
  • Leica 500mm f/8 MR-Telyt-R
  • Leica 560mm f/6.8 Telyt-R — 1971–95
  • Leica 560mm f/5.6 Telyt-R — 1966–73
  • Leica 800mm f/6.3 Telyt-S — 1972–95 (sold, during a promotional campaign, with a "free tripod"—a VW Fox)
  • Leica modular APO-Telyt-R 260/400/560 head
  • Leica modular APO-Telyt-R 400/560/800 head
  • Leica 21mm–35mm f/3.5–f/4.0 Vario-Elmar-R zoom — 2002
  • Leica 28mm–70mm f/3.5–4.5 Vario-Elmar-R zoom
  • Leica 70–180mm f/2.8 Vario-APO-Elmarit-R zoom
  • Leica 35–70 f/4.0 Vario-Elmar-R zoom
  • Leica 35–70mm f/3.5 Vario-Elmar-R zoom
  • Leica 35–70mm f/2.8 Vario-Elmarit-R ASPH zoom — 2000 (only 200 was made)
  • Leica 70–210mm f/4.0 Vario-Elmar-R zoom
  • Leica 75–200mm f/4.5 Vario-Elmar-R — 1976–84
  • Leica 80–200mm f/4.5 Vario-Elmar-R zoom
  • Leica 80–200mm f/4.0 Vario-Elmar-R zoom
  • Leica 105–280mm f/4.2 Vario-Elmar-R zoom

Leica S lenses

  • Summarit-S 1:2.5/70 mm Aspherical
  • Summarit-S 1:2.5/70 mm Aspherical CS
  • Apo-Tele-Elmar-S 1:3.5/180 mm
  • Apo-Tele-Elmar-S 1:3.5/180 mm CS
  • Apo-Macro-Summarit-S 1:2.5/120 mm
  • Apo-Macro-Summarit-S 1:2.5/120 mm CS
  • Summarit-S 1:2.5/35 mm Aspherical
  • Summarit-S 1:2.5/35 mm Aspherical CS

Leica / Leitz enlargers

  • Leitz Valoy and Valoy II — manual focus, later versions of the Valoy II were grey in colour. Valoy II normally equipped with Focotar 50mm f1:4.5 code name DOOCQ, and used with extension ring DOORX.
  • Leitz Focomat Ia — Same as Focomat 1C, that is with autofocus, but the head does not tilt back to allow for easy insertion of negative.
  • Leitz Focomat Ib
  • Leitz Focomat Ic — sometimes fitted with Kienzle colour head. Produced first with varob 5 cm f1:3.5 lenses, later with elmar 5 cm f1:3.5, focotar 5 cm f1:4.5, focotar 50mm f1:4.5, focotar 50mm 2nd version f1:4.5, focotar-2 f1:4.5. Changes in focotar name or focal length designation do not necessarily coincide with the optical formula. The focotar-2 is always the same formula, and so is the 5 cm version. The 50mm exists in two versions. The 1C helical will accommodate lenses of various makes. Available in "color" version with filter drawer and lighted enlargement factor scale. Many small design variations exist.
  • Leitz Focomat IIa — 35mm–6×9 format, dual lens turret on later versions that fitted a 5 cm elmar f1:3.5 or focotar 1:4.5, and a 9.5 cm f1:4.5 focotar, autofocus. The early version has a single helical that will accommodate lenses of any make. Available in "color" version with filter drawer and lighted enlargement factor scale.
  • Leitz Focomat IIc — 35mm–6×9 formats, dual lens stage rather than turret, autofocus. First produced with focotar 6 cm f1:4.5 and focotar 9.5 cm f1:4.5, later with focotar 60mm and V-Elmar 100mm f1:4.5, still later with focotar 60mm and focotar II 100mm f1:5.6. All the 6 cm and 60mm focotars appear to be the same optical design. Kienzle or other colour heads sometime fitted. Only very slender enlarging lenses will fit the IIc helicals. Available in "color" version with filter drawer and lighted enlargement factor scale.
  • Leitz Focomat II (modified for American military), code EN-121A — Extremely rare
  • Vincent electrical shutter (for enlarger) — Extremely rare
  • ELCAN 52mm enlarger lens (20×–25× enlargements) — Extremely rare
  • ELCAN 20mm enlarger lens (40×–75× enlargements) — Extremely rare
  • Leitz/Leica Focomat V35 — autofocus — 40mm f/2.8 Focotar lens — colour or Multigrade (variable contrast) heads. 1978–95.


Leica is traded as LCA1 in the Frankfurt stock exchange.

Concept: Cameras/ History of...KODAK.

Sourced from the Wikipedia 'Kodak' Page...Because I live dangerously...

Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a multinational US corporation which produces imaging and photographic materials and equipment. Long known for its wide range of photographic film products, Kodak is re-focusing on two major markets: digital photography and digital printing. As part of its turnaround strategy, Eastman Kodak has turned to aggressive patent litigation in order to generate revenue.

Kodak's origins rest with Eastman Dry Plate Company, and the General Aristo Company, founded by inventor George Eastman in Rochester and Jamestown, New York. The General Aristo Company was formed in 1899 in Jamestown New York, with George Eastman as treasurer, and this company purchased the stock of American Aristotype Company. George Eastman registered the trademark Kodak on September 4, 1888. The Eastman Kodak Company was founded by Eastman in 1892. He also coined the advertising slogan, "You press the button, we do the rest."
The first model of the Kodak camera appeared in the year 1888. It took round pictures 2½ inches in diameter, was of the fixed focus type and carried a roll of film sufficient for 100 exposures. Its invention practically marked the advent of amateur photography, as before that time both apparatus and processes were too burdensome to permit of classification in the field of recreation. The roll film used in the first model of the Kodak camera had a paper base but was soon superseded by a film with a cellulose base, a practical, transparent, flexible film.
The first films had to be loaded into the camera and unloaded in the dark room, but the film cartridge system with its protecting strip of non-actinic paper made it possible to load and unload the camera in ordinary light. The Kodak Developing Machine and its simplified successor, the Kodak Film Tank, provided the means for daylight development of film, making the dark room unnecessary for any of the operations of amateur photography. The earlier types of the Kodak cameras were of the box form and of fixed focus, and as various sizes were added, devices for focusing the lenses were incorporated.
The first folding Kodak cameras were introduced early in the 1890's. These were equipped with folding bellows which permitted much greater compactness. The first pocket Kodak camera was introduced in 1895. It was of the box form type, slipping easily into an ordinary coat pocket, and producing negatives 1½ x 2 inches. The first folding pocket Kodak camera was introduced in 1897.
By 1920, an “Autographic Feature” provided a means for recording data on the margin of the negative at the time of exposure. This feature was supplied on all Kodak cameras with the exception of a box camera designed for making panoramic pictures and was discontinued in 1932.
Eventually, the business in Jamestown was moved in its entirety to Rochester, and the plants in Jamestown were razed. The Eastman Dry Plate Company was responsible for the first cameras suitable for non expert use. The Kodak company attained its name from the first simple roll film cameras produced by Eastman Dry Plate Company, known as the "Kodak" in its product line. The cameras proved such an enormous success that the word Kodak was incorporated into the company name.

The company is incorporated in New Jersey but has its offices in Rochester, New York.

Kodak name

The letter "K" had been a favorite of Eastman's, he is quoted as saying, "it seems a strong, incisive sort of letter." He and his mother devised the name Kodak with an anagram set. He said that there were three principal concepts he used in creating the name: it should be short, one cannot mispronounce it, and it could not resemble anything or be associated with anything but Kodak.
It has also been suggested that "Kodak" originated from the suggestion of David Houston, a fellow photographic inventor who held the patents to several roll film camera concepts that he later sold to Eastman Houston, who started receiving patents in 1881, was said to have chosen "Nodak" as a nickname of his home state, North Dakota (NoDak). This is contested by other historians, however, who cite that Kodak was trademarked prior to Eastman buying Houston's patents.

Modern products

Photo printing

Kodak is a leading producer of silver halide (AgX) paper used for printing from film and digital images. Minilabs located in retail stores and larger central photo lab operations (CLOs) use silver halide paper for photo printing. Kodak is also a manufacturer of self-service photo kiosks which produce "prints in minutes" from digital sources and scans, using thermosublimation printers; the company has placed some 80,000 Picture Kiosks in retail locations worldwide. Employing similar technology, Kodak also offers larger devices intended for photo shops, under the brand name "APEX". In addition, Kodak markets Picture CDs and other photo products such as calendars, photo books and photo enlargements through retail partners such as CVS, Walmart and Target and through its Kodak Gallery online service, formerly known as Ofoto. In 2005 Kodak announced they would stop producing black-and-white photo paper.

Film cameras

January 13, 2004, Kodak announced it would stop marketing traditional film cameras (excluding disposable cameras) in the United States, Canada and Western Europe, but will continue to sell film cameras in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and China. By the end of 2005, Kodak ceased manufacturing cameras that used the Advanced Photo System. Kodak licensed the manufacture of Kodak branded cameras to Vivitar for two years following (2005–2006). In 2007 Kodak did not license any manufacture of any film camera with the Kodak name in this market. These changes reflect Kodak's focus on growth in the digital markets. Kodak continues to produce film for newer and more popular formats, while it has also discontinued the manufacture of film in older and less popular formats. However, Kodak still continues with its production of specialty films.

Digital picture frames

Kodak first launched the Kodak Smart Picture Frame on the QVC shopping channel in the fourth quarter of 2000, when the majority of consumers didn't know about or understand this new digital photo frame category. Kodak's Smart Frame was designed by Weave Innovations and licensed to Kodak with an exclusive relationship with Weave's StoryBox online photo network. Smart Frame owners connected to the network via an analog telephone connection built into the frame. The frame was configured to default connect at 2 a.m. to download new pictures from the Story Box network. The other option to load images onto the frame was via the CompactFlash port.
The retail price was $349 USD. The frame could hold 36 images internally and came with a six-month free subscription to the StoryBox network. At the end of six months, users had the option of disconnecting from the network or paying a subscription fee of $4.95 per month for two automatic connections and two manual connections, or $9.95 per month for four automatic connections and four manual connections. Kodak re-entered the digital photo frame market at CES in 2007 with the introduction of four new EasyShare-branded models that were available in sizes from 8 to 11 inches (280 mm), included multiple memory card slots, and some of which included wi-fi capability to connect with the Kodak Gallery—although that gallery functionality has now been compromised due to gallery policy changes (see below).

Instant cameras

After losing a patent battle with Polaroid Corporation, Kodak left the instant camera business on January 9, 1986. The Kodak instant camera included models known as the Kodamatic and the Colorburst.
Polaroid was awarded damages in the patent trial in the amount of US $909,457,567.00, a record at the time. (Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., U.S. District Court District of Massachusetts, decided October 12, 1990, case no. 76-1634-MA. Published in the U.S. Patent Quarterly as 16 USPQ2d 1481). See also the following cases: Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., 641 F.Supp. 828 [228 USPQ 305] (D. Mass. 1985), stay denied, 833 F.2d 930 [5 USPQ2d 1080] (Fed. Cir.), aff'd, 789 F.2d 1556 [229 USPQ 561] (Fed. Cir.), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 850 (1986).
Kodak had been the exclusive supplier of negatives for Polaroid cameras from 1963 until 1969, when Polaroid chose to manufacture its own instant film.

Digital cameras

Kodak became famous for the Kodak DCS DSLR camera series, including the first commercial DSLR Kodak DCS 100 which was Nikon based.
Many of Kodak's earlier compact digital cameras were designed and built by Chinon Industries, a Japanese camera manufacturer. In 2004 Kodak Japan acquired Chinon and many of its engineers and designers joined Kodak Japan. In July 2006 Kodak announced that Flextronics would manufacture and help design its digital cameras.

Image sensors

As part of its move toward higher end products, Kodak announced on September 15, 2006 that the new Leica M8 camera would incorporate Kodak's KAF-10500 image sensor. This was the second recent partnership between Kodak and the German optical manufacturer.

Motion picture and TV production

The Kodak company holds a vital role in the invention and development of the motion picture industry. Many cinema and TV productions are shot on Kodak film stocks. The company helped set the standard of 35 mm film, and introduced the 16 mm film format for amateur use and lower budget productions. The home market-oriented 8 mm and Super 8 formats were also developed by Kodak. Kodak also entered the professional video tape market, briefly in the mid 1980s, under the product portfolio name of Eastman Professional Video Tape Products. In 1990, Kodak launched a Worldwide Student Program working with university faculty throughout the world to help nurture the future generation of film-makers. Kodak formed Educational Advisory Councils in the US, Europe and Asia made up of Deans and Chairs of some of the most prestigious film schools throughout the world to help guide the development of their program.
Kodak owns the visual effects film post-production facilities Cinesite, in Los Angeles and London, and also LaserPacific in Los Angeles. Kodak also owns Pro-Tek Media Preservation Services in Burbank, California. Pro-Tek is the world's premier film storage company.

Document Imaging

Kodak provides document imaging solutions. Historically this industry began when George Eastman partnered with banks to image checks in the 1920s. Through the development of microfilm technology, Eastman Kodak was able to provide business and government with a solution for long term document storage. Document imaging was one of the first imaging solutions to move to "digital imaging" technology. Kodak manufactured the first digital document scanners for high speed document imaging. Today Kodak has a full line of document scanners providing imaging solutions for banking, finance, insurance, healthcare and other vertical industries. Kodak also provides associated document capture software and business process services. Eastman Kodak acquired the Bowe Bell & Howell scanner division in September 2009.

Consumer inkjet printers and ink cartridges

Kodak entered into consumer inkjet photo printers in a joint venture with manufacturer Lexmark in 1999 with the Kodak Personal Picture Maker.
In February 2007, Kodak re-entered the market with a new product line of All-In-One (AiO) inkjet printers, which employ several technologies marketed as Kodacolor Technology. Advertising emphasizes low price for ink cartridges rather than for the printers themselves.

Technical Support and On-Site Service

Aside from technical phone support for their products, Kodak offers onsite service for other devices such as document scanners, Data storage systems (Optical, Tape and Disk), printers, Inkjet printing presses, microfilm / microfiche equipment, photo kiosks and photocopiers, for which they dispatch technicians who make repairs in the field.

Kodak Gallery

In June 2001, Kodak purchased the photo-developing website Ofoto. It was later re-named the Kodak Gallery. At the website, users can upload their photos into albums, publish them into prints, and create mousepads, calendars, etc.


  • In December 2010, Standard & Poor's removed Kodak from its S&P 500 index.
  • In January 2009, Kodak posted a $137 million fourth-quarter loss and announced plans to cut up to 4,500 jobs.
  • On June 22, 2009, Eastman Kodak Co announced that it will retire Kodachrome color film by the end of 2009, ending its 74-year run after a dramatic decline in sales.
  • On December 4, 2009, Eastman Kodak Co sold its Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) business unit to LG Electronics which resulted in the laying off of 60 people, which includes research engineers, technicians and interns.
  • Kodak Graphic Communications wins the British Columbia Technology Industry Association Impact Award for Excellence in Product Innovation. The winning product was an advanced manufacturing tool that uses laser imaging to produce color filters for Liquid Crystal Displays (specifically, large LCD televisions) in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.
  • In October 2008, Kodak Graphic Communications Canada Co. was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's news magazine. Later that month, it was also named one of BC's Top Employers, which was announced by The Vancouver Sun, The Province and the Victoria Times-Colonist.
  • On June 14, Kodak announced a two to fourfold increase in sensitivity to light (from one to two stops) compared to current sensor designs. This design is a departure from the classic "Bayer filter" by adding panchromatic, or “clear” pixels to the RGB elements on the sensor array. Since these pixels are sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light, they collect a significantly higher proportion of the light striking the sensor. In combination with advanced Kodak software algorithms optimized for these new patterns, photographers benefit from an increase in photographic speed (improving performance in low light), faster shutter speeds (reducing motion blur for moving subjects), and smaller pixels (higher resolutions in a given optical format) while retaining performance. The technology is credited to Kodak scientists John Compton and John Hamilton. Initially targeted for consumer markets such as digital still cameras and camera phones, the technology is expected to be available in early 2008.
  • Kodak EasyShare V570 Dual Lens Digital Camera: In January 2006, the world's first dual-lens digital still camera was unveiled at the CES. It was also the world’s smallest ultra-wide-angle optical zoom digital camera. Using proprietary Kodak Retina Dual Lens technology, the V570 wrapped an ultra-wide angle lens (23 mm) and a second optical zoom lens (39 – 117 mm) into a body less than an inch thick.
  • Kodak EasyShare V610 Dual Lens Digital Camera: The world’s smallest 10× (38–380 mm) optical zoom camera at less than an inch thick.
  • Kodak EasyShare-One Digital Camera: The world’s first Wi-Fi consumer digital camera, and the world's first camera that could e-mail pictures was unveiled at the January 2005 CES
  • Eastman Kodak Company is removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average index on April 8, 2004; having been listed for the past 74 years.
  • Kodak EasyShare LS633 Digital Camera: The world's first digital camera to feature a full-color, active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display. The display measured 2.2 inches (56 mm) and had a 165° viewing angle. OLED technology was developed by Kodak. The retail price was $399 USD.
  • Kodak EasyShare Printer Dock 6000: The world's first printer-and-camera dock combination, enabled users to print borderless 4 × 6 in (152 mm) laminated, waterproof, photos directly from the EasyShare digital camera with no computer required in 90 seconds. The printer dock could also charge the camera's battery or be connected to a computer to offer one-touch picture transfer. The printer dock used thermal dye-sub technology (a paper-and-ribbon system) that provided continuous tone color ink that dried instantly. The retail price was $199 USD.
  • Eastman Chemical, a Kodak subsidiary founded by George Eastman to supply Kodak's chemical needs, is spun off as a separate corporation. Eastman is now a Fortune 500 company in its own right.
  • Dr. Ching W. Tang, a senior research associate, and his colleague, Steven Van Slyke, developed the first multi-layer OLEDs at the Kodak Research Laboratories, for which he later became a Fellow of the Society for Information Display (SID)
  • Kodak scientists invented the world's first megapixel sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels, capable of producing a photo-quality 5×7 inch print.
  • Comedian Bill Cosby became spokesperson for Kodak Film's Colorwatch system, appearing in commercials from 1986 to 1993, also appearing for Jell-o and Coca-Cola at that time.
  • The Bayer Pattern color filter array (CFA) is invented by Eastman Kodak researcher Bryce Bayer. The order in which dyes are placed on an image sensor photosite, is still in use today. The basic technology is still the most commonly used of its kind to date.
  • The invention of the digital camera by Steven Sasson, then an electrical engineer at Eastman Kodak.
  • Eastman Kodak introduces Kodachrome, the first 35mm color film.
  • Eastman Kodak Company is added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average index on July 18, 1930. The company would remain listed as one of the DJIA companies for the next 74 years, ending in 2004.
  • Tennessee Eastman is founded as a wholly owned subsidiary. The company's primary purpose is the manufacture of chemicals, such as acetyls, needed for Kodak's film photography products.
  • Brownie is introduced, leading to a new mass market.
  • George Eastman registered Kodak as a trademark and coined the phrase "You Press The Button and We Do The Rest."
  • George Eastman invented roll film, the basis for the invention of motion picture film, as used by early filmmakers and Thomas Edison.

Chief executives

Chief executives
Name Title Tenure
Henry A. Strong President 1884 – July 26, 1919
George Eastman President 1921 – April 7, 1925
William G. Stuber President 1925–1934
Frank W. Lovejoy President 1934–1941
Thomas J. Hargrave President 1941–1952
Albert K. Chapman President 1952–1960
William S. Vaughn President and CEO 1960 – December 31, 1968
Louis K. Eilers President and CEO January 1, 1969 – May 17, 1972
Walter A. Fallon President and CEO May 18, 1972–1983
Colby H. Chandler CEO May, 1983–1990
Kay R. Whitmore CEO 1990 – October 27, 1993
George M. C. Fisher CEO October 28, 1993 – December 31, 1999
Daniel A. Carp CEO January 1, 2000 – May 31, 2005
Antonio M. Perez CEO June 1, 2005 – present


2006 Motorola, Inc. and Kodak announced a 10-year global product, cross licensing and marketing alliance intended to fulfill the promise of mobile imaging for the benefit of consumers. By incorporating Kodak’s image science and system integration expertise with Motorola's mobile device design, the two companies goal is to greatly improve the ease-of-use and image capture experience of camera phones. The collaboration covers licensing, sourcing, software integration, marketing, and extends to co-development of image-rich devices with joint engineering teams. For example, Kodak expects to supply its CMOS sensors to Motorola for use in its camera phones, as well as in any future devices the companies co-develop. Additionally, the cooperation to seamlessly integrate millions of Motorola mobile devices with Kodak home printers, retail kiosks, and the Kodak EasyShare Gallery will provide a solution to consumers who want a quick and easy way to get their images out of the phone for sharing. Under the alliance, Motorola and Kodak plan to initially expand access to and awareness of mobile-imaging services – including retail programs, online services and customized operator-led initiatives that deliver a seamless, easy experience for consumers. Later plans are to launch handsets and co-created mobile devices with integrated software to enable consumers to access and manage their mobile images seamlessly and conveniently. This cross-licensing agreement between Kodak and Motorola delivers royalty revenues to Kodak.
Kodak announced a partnership with Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc. for a line of custom, personalized photo products. The products are intended to blend Martha Stewart’s "how-to" style with Kodak’s photo quality expertise, combining online photography with offline products. The photo products include individualized Photo Books, stationery, stickers, and cards, customized for holidays, weddings, and thank-you notes. The products were available by the end of the year and found on and
There was also partnerships with Kodak Fc in Harrow, where in the season of 03/04 a bright left footed striker by the name of Jack Dennehy ermerged from the ranks scoring 73 goals in the one season before the tragic event that lead to his football career being trashed, when he broke his leg in 6 places in a tragic skiing incident in the Torino Olympic Trials.
In 2009, Kodak sponsored the 1st Annual Streamy Awards.

Kodak Canada, Ryerson University

Ryerson University located in Toronto has recently acquired two significant collections. Kodak Canada has recently donated its entire historic company archives to Ryerson University . The Library will also soon acquire an extensive collection of materials on the history of photography from the private collection of Nicholas M. & Marilyn A. Graver of Rochester , New York . The Kodak Archives, which begin in 1909, contain historic photos, files, trade circulars, Kodak magazines, price lists, daily record books, cameras, equipment and other ephemera.


2007 Kodak announced a cross licensing agreement May 25 with Chi Mei Optoelectronics and Chi Mei EL (CMEL) of Taiwan. CMEL plans to incorporate Kodak's active matrix OLED display technology in small panel, mobile displays. The license, which is royalty bearing to Kodak, enables CMEL to use Kodak technology (intellectual property, manufacturing know-how, and materials) for active matrix OLED modules in a variety of small to medium size display applications such as mobile phones, digital cameras and portable media players. The agreement also enables CMEL to purchase Kodak's patented OLED materials for use in manufacturing displays. Financial terms of the agreement were not disclosed.
On September 4, Kodak announced a five-year extension of its partnership with Lexar Media.
2006 Kodak announced an agreement August 1 in which Flextronics International Ltd. would manufacture and distribute Kodak consumer digital cameras and manage certain camera design and development functions. Flextronics would also manage the operations and logistics services for Kodak’s digital still cameras. Kodak continues to develop the high-level system design, product look and feel and user experience, and conducts advanced research and development for its digital still cameras.
Under the agreement, Kodak divested its entire digital camera manufacturing operations to Flextronics; assembly, production, and testing. Flextronics thus acquired a significant portion of the Kodak Digital Product Center, Japan, Ltd. (“KDPC”) in Chino and Yokohama, Japan, (camera design functions and employees) and Kodak Electronics Products, Shanghai Co. Ltd. (“KEPS”) in China (camera manufacturing, assembly, warehousing, and employees). Approximately 550 Kodak personnel were transferred to Flextronics facilities.
The agreement served to drive profitability, efficiency, and streamline digital camera operations by bringing "camera products to market more quickly, with greater predictability, flexibility, and cost efficiency while maintaining the innovative ease-of-use for which the Kodak brand is renowned." He added that the new strategy would enable Kodak to sustain innovation be focusing on advanced development and other areas to achieve the greatest competitive differentiation and advantage.
Kodak would retain all intellectual property and patents as part of the transaction as well as Kodak trademarks, Kodak trade names, Kodak customers, customer information and customer relationships, Kodak feature specifications, Kodak digital camera designs and Kodak digital camera technologies.
Greg Westbrook, President of Flextronics' Consumer Digital market segment, was formerly General Manager of digital capture at Kodak.
2004 Kodak signed an exclusive long-term agreement with Lexar Media Inc. of Fremont, California to help market digital memory cards by putting its brand name on cards designed, manufactured and sold/distributed by Lexar such as Compact Flash and Secure Digital cards. The agreement was to give Kodak a broader role in a rapidly growing market. Terms of the agreement were not disclosed, however a source of revenue would be provided to Kodak. The agreement would also help Lexar to crack new channels of distribution worldwide. At the time, Lexar products were sold in about 48,000 retail outlets, whereas Kodak was doing business with a half-million storefronts in roughly 70 nations.

Environmental record

Kodak has been widely criticized by environmentalists and researchers as one of the worst polluters in the United States. According to, a web site which collects information on corporate pollution, Kodak is the worst polluter in New York state, releasing 4,433,749 pounds (2,011,115 kg) of chemicals into air and water supply.
The Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts, which compiled the Toxic 100, ranked Kodak the seventh largest polluter in the United States in 2002. In 2004, the Citizens' Environmental Coalition's (CEC) of New York awarded Kodak one of its "Dirty Dozen" awards to highlight its consistently high rates of pollution.
However, in 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) granted Kodak the EnergyStar Sustained Excellence Award for "outstanding and continued leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions through superior energy management."
Kodak details its annual progress in global sustainability, as well as health, safety, and environment, in its Global Sustainability report.


Kodak announced, on January 10, 2007, an agreement to sell its Health Group Onex Healthcare Holdings, Inc., a subsidiary of Toronto-based Onex Corporation for $2.55 billion. The sale was completed May 1. Kodak received $2.35 billion in cash, and would receive up to $200 million in additional future payments if Onex achieved certain returns with the Health Group investment. Kodak used the proceeds to fully repay its approximately $1.15 billion of secured term debt, and is studying options for the remaining cash as it sharpens strategic focus on consumer and professional imaging and the graphic communications industry. About 8,100 Kodak Health Group employees transferred to the Onex-acquired business, continuing under the name Carestream Health, Inc. Included in the sale are manufacturing operations focused on the production of health imaging products, as well as an office building in Rochester, N.Y. Kodak’s Health Group had revenue of $2.54 billion for the latest 12 reported months (through September 30, 2006). It was a worldwide leader in information technology, molecular imaging systems, medical and dental imaging; including digital x-ray capture, medical printers, and x-ray film. Onex Corporation is a diversified company and one of Canada’s largest corporations, with global operations in health care, service, manufacturing and technology industries. The health care operations include emergency care facilities and diagnostic imaging clinics. Goldman, Sachs & Co. acted as financial advisor to Kodak on the sale of its Health Group and Sullivan & Cromwell provided legal counsel. Lazard Freres & Co. provided a fairness opinion in relation to the transaction.
On April 19, 2007, Kodak announced it had reached a deal to sell its Light Management Film group (a portion of its display business) to Rohm and Haas Co., based in Philadelphia. Light management film is used as layers on flat panel TVs and displays to improve effectiveness and control brightness. The group comprised 125 workers worldwide, with about 100 located in Rochester. Rohm and Haas would license technology and purchase equipment from Kodak, and lease Building 318 at Kodak Park. The sale price was not disclosed.
Kodak's chemical subsidiary, Tennessee Eastman, was spun off as a separate corporation, Eastman Chemical. Tennessee Eastman had been founded in 1920 by George Eastman to provide Kodak with the chemicals needed for its film-based photography business. Since the spin-off, Eastman Chemical has diversified its product portfolio, and is now a Fortune 500 corporation in its own right.

Better Business Bureau expulsion proceedings

On 26 March 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) announced that Eastman Kodak had advised it that the company was resigning its national membership in the wake of expulsion proceedings initiated by the CBBB Board of Directors. In 2006, Kodak had notified the BBB of Upstate New York that it would no longer accept or respond to consumer complaints submitted by them. In prior years, Kodak had responded by offering consumers an adjustment or an explanation of the company’s position. The BBB file contains consumer complaints of problems with repairs of Kodak digital cameras, as well as difficulty communicating with Kodak customer service. Among other complaints, consumers say that their cameras broke and they were charged for repairs when the failure was not the result of any damage or abuse. Some say their cameras failed again after being repaired.
Kodak said its customer service and customer privacy teams concluded that 99 percent of all complaints forwarded by the BBB already had been handled directly with the customer. Brian O’Connor, Kodak chief privacy officer, said the company was surprised by the news release distributed by the Better Business Bureau:
It is inaccurate in the facts presented as well as those the BBB chose to omit. Ironically, we ultimately decided to resign our membership because we were extremely unhappy with the customer service we received from the local office of the BBB. After years of unproductive discussions with the local office regarding their Web site postings about Kodak, which in our view were consistently inaccurate, we came to the conclusion that their process added no value to our own. Our commitment to our customers is unwavering. That will not change. What has changed is that, for us, the BBB’s customer complaint process has become redundant, given the multiple and immediate ways that customers have to address their concerns directly with Kodak.


Kodak & Apple Battle

In 2010, Apple filed its patent-infringement claim against Kodak. On May 12, 2011, Judge Robert Rogers rejected Apple's claims that two of its patents on digital photography were being violated by Kodak.
On July 1, 2011, the U.S. International Trade Commission reversed in part a January decision by an administrative law judge that neither Apple nor Research in Motion had infringed upon Kodak's patents. The ITC remanded the matter for further proceedings before the ALJ.