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Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a multinational US corporation which produces imaging and photographic materials and equipment. Long known for its wide range of photographic film products, Kodak is re-focusing on two major markets: digital photography and digital printing. As part of its turnaround strategy, Eastman Kodak has turned to aggressive patent litigation in order to generate revenue.
Kodak's origins rest with Eastman Dry Plate Company, and the General Aristo Company, founded by inventor George Eastman in Rochester and Jamestown, New York. The General Aristo Company was formed in 1899 in Jamestown New York, with George Eastman as treasurer, and this company purchased the stock of American Aristotype Company. George Eastman registered the trademark Kodak on September 4, 1888. The Eastman Kodak Company was founded by Eastman in 1892. He also coined the advertising slogan, "You press the button, we do the rest."
The first model of the Kodak camera appeared in the year 1888. It took round pictures 2½ inches in diameter, was of the fixed focus type and carried a roll of film sufficient for 100 exposures. Its invention practically marked the advent of amateur photography, as before that time both apparatus and processes were too burdensome to permit of classification in the field of recreation. The roll film used in the first model of the Kodak camera had a paper base but was soon superseded by a film with a cellulose base, a practical, transparent, flexible film.
The first films had to be loaded into the camera and unloaded in the dark room, but the film cartridge system with its protecting strip of non-actinic paper made it possible to load and unload the camera in ordinary light. The Kodak Developing Machine and its simplified successor, the Kodak Film Tank, provided the means for daylight development of film, making the dark room unnecessary for any of the operations of amateur photography. The earlier types of the Kodak cameras were of the box form and of fixed focus, and as various sizes were added, devices for focusing the lenses were incorporated.
The first folding Kodak cameras were introduced early in the 1890's. These were equipped with folding bellows which permitted much greater compactness. The first pocket Kodak camera was introduced in 1895. It was of the box form type, slipping easily into an ordinary coat pocket, and producing negatives 1½ x 2 inches. The first folding pocket Kodak camera was introduced in 1897.
By 1920, an “Autographic Feature” provided a means for recording data on the margin of the negative at the time of exposure. This feature was supplied on all Kodak cameras with the exception of a box camera designed for making panoramic pictures and was discontinued in 1932.
Eventually, the business in Jamestown was moved in its entirety to Rochester, and the plants in Jamestown were razed. The Eastman Dry Plate Company was responsible for the first cameras suitable for non expert use. The Kodak company attained its name from the first simple roll film cameras produced by Eastman Dry Plate Company, known as the "Kodak" in its product line. The cameras proved such an enormous success that the word Kodak was incorporated into the company name.
The company is incorporated in New Jersey but has its offices in Rochester, New York.
The letter "K" had been a favorite of Eastman's, he is quoted as saying, "it seems a strong, incisive sort of letter." He and his mother devised the name Kodak with an anagram set. He said that there were three principal concepts he used in creating the name: it should be short, one cannot mispronounce it, and it could not resemble anything or be associated with anything but Kodak.
It has also been suggested that "Kodak" originated from the suggestion of David Houston, a fellow photographic inventor who held the patents to several roll film camera concepts that he later sold to Eastman Houston, who started receiving patents in 1881, was said to have chosen "Nodak" as a nickname of his home state, North Dakota (NoDak). This is contested by other historians, however, who cite that Kodak was trademarked prior to Eastman buying Houston's patents.
Kodak is a leading producer of silver halide (AgX) paper used for printing from film and digital images. Minilabs located in retail stores and larger central photo lab operations (CLOs) use silver halide paper for photo printing. Kodak is also a manufacturer of self-service photo kiosks which produce "prints in minutes" from digital sources and scans, using thermosublimation printers; the company has placed some 80,000 Picture Kiosks in retail locations worldwide. Employing similar technology, Kodak also offers larger devices intended for photo shops, under the brand name "APEX". In addition, Kodak markets Picture CDs and other photo products such as calendars, photo books and photo enlargements through retail partners such as CVS, Walmart and Target and through its Kodak Gallery online service, formerly known as Ofoto. In 2005 Kodak announced they would stop producing black-and-white photo paper.
January 13, 2004, Kodak announced it would stop marketing traditional film cameras (excluding disposable cameras) in the United States, Canada and Western Europe, but will continue to sell film cameras in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and China. By the end of 2005, Kodak ceased manufacturing cameras that used the Advanced Photo System. Kodak licensed the manufacture of Kodak branded cameras to Vivitar for two years following (2005–2006). In 2007 Kodak did not license any manufacture of any film camera with the Kodak name in this market. These changes reflect Kodak's focus on growth in the digital markets. Kodak continues to produce film for newer and more popular formats, while it has also discontinued the manufacture of film in older and less popular formats. However, Kodak still continues with its production of specialty films.
Digital picture frames
Kodak first launched the Kodak Smart Picture Frame on the QVC shopping channel in the fourth quarter of 2000, when the majority of consumers didn't know about or understand this new digital photo frame category. Kodak's Smart Frame was designed by Weave Innovations and licensed to Kodak with an exclusive relationship with Weave's StoryBox online photo network. Smart Frame owners connected to the network via an analog telephone connection built into the frame. The frame was configured to default connect at 2 a.m. to download new pictures from the Story Box network. The other option to load images onto the frame was via the CompactFlash port.
The retail price was $349 USD. The frame could hold 36 images internally and came with a six-month free subscription to the StoryBox network. At the end of six months, users had the option of disconnecting from the network or paying a subscription fee of $4.95 per month for two automatic connections and two manual connections, or $9.95 per month for four automatic connections and four manual connections. Kodak re-entered the digital photo frame market at CES in 2007 with the introduction of four new EasyShare-branded models that were available in sizes from 8 to 11 inches (280 mm), included multiple memory card slots, and some of which included wi-fi capability to connect with the Kodak Gallery—although that gallery functionality has now been compromised due to gallery policy changes (see below).
After losing a patent battle with Polaroid Corporation, Kodak left the instant camera business on January 9, 1986. The Kodak instant camera included models known as the Kodamatic and the Colorburst.
Polaroid was awarded damages in the patent trial in the amount of US $909,457,567.00, a record at the time. (Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., U.S. District Court District of Massachusetts, decided October 12, 1990, case no. 76-1634-MA. Published in the U.S. Patent Quarterly as 16 USPQ2d 1481). See also the following cases: Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., 641 F.Supp. 828 [228 USPQ 305] (D. Mass. 1985), stay denied, 833 F.2d 930 [5 USPQ2d 1080] (Fed. Cir.), aff'd, 789 F.2d 1556 [229 USPQ 561] (Fed. Cir.), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 850 (1986).
Kodak had been the exclusive supplier of negatives for Polaroid cameras from 1963 until 1969, when Polaroid chose to manufacture its own instant film.
Kodak became famous for the Kodak DCS DSLR camera series, including the first commercial DSLR Kodak DCS 100 which was Nikon based.
Many of Kodak's earlier compact digital cameras were designed and built by Chinon Industries, a Japanese camera manufacturer. In 2004 Kodak Japan acquired Chinon and many of its engineers and designers joined Kodak Japan. In July 2006 Kodak announced that Flextronics would manufacture and help design its digital cameras.
As part of its move toward higher end products, Kodak announced on September 15, 2006 that the new Leica M8 camera would incorporate Kodak's KAF-10500 image sensor. This was the second recent partnership between Kodak and the German optical manufacturer.
Motion picture and TV production
The Kodak company holds a vital role in the invention and development of the motion picture industry. Many cinema and TV productions are shot on Kodak film stocks. The company helped set the standard of 35 mm film, and introduced the 16 mm film format for amateur use and lower budget productions. The home market-oriented 8 mm and Super 8 formats were also developed by Kodak. Kodak also entered the professional video tape market, briefly in the mid 1980s, under the product portfolio name of Eastman Professional Video Tape Products. In 1990, Kodak launched a Worldwide Student Program working with university faculty throughout the world to help nurture the future generation of film-makers. Kodak formed Educational Advisory Councils in the US, Europe and Asia made up of Deans and Chairs of some of the most prestigious film schools throughout the world to help guide the development of their program.
Kodak owns the visual effects film post-production facilities Cinesite, in Los Angeles and London, and also LaserPacific in Los Angeles. Kodak also owns Pro-Tek Media Preservation Services in Burbank, California. Pro-Tek is the world's premier film storage company.
Kodak provides document imaging solutions. Historically this industry began when George Eastman partnered with banks to image checks in the 1920s. Through the development of microfilm technology, Eastman Kodak was able to provide business and government with a solution for long term document storage. Document imaging was one of the first imaging solutions to move to "digital imaging" technology. Kodak manufactured the first digital document scanners for high speed document imaging. Today Kodak has a full line of document scanners providing imaging solutions for banking, finance, insurance, healthcare and other vertical industries. Kodak also provides associated document capture software and business process services. Eastman Kodak acquired the Bowe Bell & Howell scanner division in September 2009.
Consumer inkjet printers and ink cartridges
Kodak entered into consumer inkjet photo printers in a joint venture with manufacturer Lexmark in 1999 with the Kodak Personal Picture Maker.
In February 2007, Kodak re-entered the market with a new product line of All-In-One (AiO) inkjet printers, which employ several technologies marketed as Kodacolor Technology. Advertising emphasizes low price for ink cartridges rather than for the printers themselves.
Technical Support and On-Site Service
Aside from technical phone support for their products, Kodak offers onsite service for other devices such as document scanners, Data storage systems (Optical, Tape and Disk), printers, Inkjet printing presses, microfilm / microfiche equipment, photo kiosks and photocopiers, for which they dispatch technicians who make repairs in the field.
In June 2001, Kodak purchased the photo-developing website Ofoto. It was later re-named the Kodak Gallery. At the website, users can upload their photos into albums, publish them into prints, and create mousepads, calendars, etc.
- In December 2010, Standard & Poor's removed Kodak from its S&P 500 index.
- In January 2009, Kodak posted a $137 million fourth-quarter loss and announced plans to cut up to 4,500 jobs.
- On June 22, 2009, Eastman Kodak Co announced that it will retire Kodachrome color film by the end of 2009, ending its 74-year run after a dramatic decline in sales.
- On December 4, 2009, Eastman Kodak Co sold its Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) business unit to LG Electronics which resulted in the laying off of 60 people, which includes research engineers, technicians and interns.
- Kodak Graphic Communications wins the British Columbia Technology Industry Association Impact Award for Excellence in Product Innovation. The winning product was an advanced manufacturing tool that uses laser imaging to produce color filters for Liquid Crystal Displays (specifically, large LCD televisions) in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.
- In October 2008, Kodak Graphic Communications Canada Co. was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's news magazine. Later that month, it was also named one of BC's Top Employers, which was announced by The Vancouver Sun, The Province and the Victoria Times-Colonist.
- On June 14, Kodak announced a two to fourfold increase in sensitivity to light (from one to two stops) compared to current sensor designs. This design is a departure from the classic "Bayer filter" by adding panchromatic, or “clear” pixels to the RGB elements on the sensor array. Since these pixels are sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light, they collect a significantly higher proportion of the light striking the sensor. In combination with advanced Kodak software algorithms optimized for these new patterns, photographers benefit from an increase in photographic speed (improving performance in low light), faster shutter speeds (reducing motion blur for moving subjects), and smaller pixels (higher resolutions in a given optical format) while retaining performance. The technology is credited to Kodak scientists John Compton and John Hamilton. Initially targeted for consumer markets such as digital still cameras and camera phones, the technology is expected to be available in early 2008.
- Kodak EasyShare V570 Dual Lens Digital Camera: In January 2006, the world's first dual-lens digital still camera was unveiled at the CES. It was also the world’s smallest ultra-wide-angle optical zoom digital camera. Using proprietary Kodak Retina Dual Lens technology, the V570 wrapped an ultra-wide angle lens (23 mm) and a second optical zoom lens (39 – 117 mm) into a body less than an inch thick.
- Kodak EasyShare V610 Dual Lens Digital Camera: The world’s smallest 10× (38–380 mm) optical zoom camera at less than an inch thick.
- Kodak EasyShare-One Digital Camera: The world’s first Wi-Fi consumer digital camera, and the world's first camera that could e-mail pictures was unveiled at the January 2005 CES
- Eastman Kodak Company is removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average index on April 8, 2004; having been listed for the past 74 years.
- Kodak EasyShare LS633 Digital Camera: The world's first digital camera to feature a full-color, active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display. The display measured 2.2 inches (56 mm) and had a 165° viewing angle. OLED technology was developed by Kodak. The retail price was $399 USD.
- Kodak EasyShare Printer Dock 6000: The world's first printer-and-camera dock combination, enabled users to print borderless 4 × 6 in (152 mm) laminated, waterproof, photos directly from the EasyShare digital camera with no computer required in 90 seconds. The printer dock could also charge the camera's battery or be connected to a computer to offer one-touch picture transfer. The printer dock used thermal dye-sub technology (a paper-and-ribbon system) that provided continuous tone color ink that dried instantly. The retail price was $199 USD.
- Eastman Chemical, a Kodak subsidiary founded by George Eastman to supply Kodak's chemical needs, is spun off as a separate corporation. Eastman is now a Fortune 500 company in its own right.
- Dr. Ching W. Tang, a senior research associate, and his colleague, Steven Van Slyke, developed the first multi-layer OLEDs at the Kodak Research Laboratories, for which he later became a Fellow of the Society for Information Display (SID)
- Kodak scientists invented the world's first megapixel sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels, capable of producing a photo-quality 5×7 inch print.
- Comedian Bill Cosby became spokesperson for Kodak Film's Colorwatch system, appearing in commercials from 1986 to 1993, also appearing for Jell-o and Coca-Cola at that time.
- The Bayer Pattern color filter array (CFA) is invented by Eastman Kodak researcher Bryce Bayer. The order in which dyes are placed on an image sensor photosite, is still in use today. The basic technology is still the most commonly used of its kind to date.
- The invention of the digital camera by Steven Sasson, then an electrical engineer at Eastman Kodak.
- Eastman Kodak introduces Kodachrome, the first 35mm color film.
- Eastman Kodak Company is added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average index on July 18, 1930. The company would remain listed as one of the DJIA companies for the next 74 years, ending in 2004.
- Tennessee Eastman is founded as a wholly owned subsidiary. The company's primary purpose is the manufacture of chemicals, such as acetyls, needed for Kodak's film photography products.
- Brownie is introduced, leading to a new mass market.
- George Eastman registered Kodak as a trademark and coined the phrase "You Press The Button and We Do The Rest."
- George Eastman invented roll film, the basis for the invention of motion picture film, as used by early filmmakers and Thomas Edison.
|Henry A. Strong||President||1884 – July 26, 1919|
|George Eastman||President||1921 – April 7, 1925|
|William G. Stuber||President||1925–1934|
|Frank W. Lovejoy||President||1934–1941|
|Thomas J. Hargrave||President||1941–1952|
|Albert K. Chapman||President||1952–1960|
|William S. Vaughn||President and CEO||1960 – December 31, 1968|
|Louis K. Eilers||President and CEO||January 1, 1969 – May 17, 1972|
|Walter A. Fallon||President and CEO||May 18, 1972–1983|
|Colby H. Chandler||CEO||May, 1983–1990|
|Kay R. Whitmore||CEO||1990 – October 27, 1993|
|George M. C. Fisher||CEO||October 28, 1993 – December 31, 1999|
|Daniel A. Carp||CEO||January 1, 2000 – May 31, 2005|
|Antonio M. Perez||CEO||June 1, 2005 – present|
2006 Motorola, Inc. and Kodak announced a 10-year global product, cross licensing and marketing alliance intended to fulfill the promise of mobile imaging for the benefit of consumers. By incorporating Kodak’s image science and system integration expertise with Motorola's mobile device design, the two companies goal is to greatly improve the ease-of-use and image capture experience of camera phones. The collaboration covers licensing, sourcing, software integration, marketing, and extends to co-development of image-rich devices with joint engineering teams. For example, Kodak expects to supply its CMOS sensors to Motorola for use in its camera phones, as well as in any future devices the companies co-develop. Additionally, the cooperation to seamlessly integrate millions of Motorola mobile devices with Kodak home printers, retail kiosks, and the Kodak EasyShare Gallery will provide a solution to consumers who want a quick and easy way to get their images out of the phone for sharing. Under the alliance, Motorola and Kodak plan to initially expand access to and awareness of mobile-imaging services – including retail programs, online services and customized operator-led initiatives that deliver a seamless, easy experience for consumers. Later plans are to launch handsets and co-created mobile devices with integrated software to enable consumers to access and manage their mobile images seamlessly and conveniently. This cross-licensing agreement between Kodak and Motorola delivers royalty revenues to Kodak.
Kodak announced a partnership with Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc. for a line of custom, personalized photo products. The products are intended to blend Martha Stewart’s "how-to" style with Kodak’s photo quality expertise, combining online photography with offline products. The photo products include individualized Photo Books, stationery, stickers, and cards, customized for holidays, weddings, and thank-you notes. The products were available by the end of the year and found on www.kodakgallery.com and www.marthastewart.com.
There was also partnerships with Kodak Fc in Harrow, where in the season of 03/04 a bright left footed striker by the name of Jack Dennehy ermerged from the ranks scoring 73 goals in the one season before the tragic event that lead to his football career being trashed, when he broke his leg in 6 places in a tragic skiing incident in the Torino Olympic Trials.
In 2009, Kodak sponsored the 1st Annual Streamy Awards.
Kodak Canada, Ryerson University
Ryerson University located in Toronto has recently acquired two significant collections. Kodak Canada has recently donated its entire historic company archives to Ryerson University . The Library will also soon acquire an extensive collection of materials on the history of photography from the private collection of Nicholas M. & Marilyn A. Graver of Rochester , New York . The Kodak Archives, which begin in 1909, contain historic photos, files, trade circulars, Kodak magazines, price lists, daily record books, cameras, equipment and other ephemera.
2007 Kodak announced a cross licensing agreement May 25 with Chi Mei Optoelectronics and Chi Mei EL (CMEL) of Taiwan. CMEL plans to incorporate Kodak's active matrix OLED display technology in small panel, mobile displays. The license, which is royalty bearing to Kodak, enables CMEL to use Kodak technology (intellectual property, manufacturing know-how, and materials) for active matrix OLED modules in a variety of small to medium size display applications such as mobile phones, digital cameras and portable media players. The agreement also enables CMEL to purchase Kodak's patented OLED materials for use in manufacturing displays. Financial terms of the agreement were not disclosed.
On September 4, Kodak announced a five-year extension of its partnership with Lexar Media.
2006 Kodak announced an agreement August 1 in which Flextronics International Ltd. would manufacture and distribute Kodak consumer digital cameras and manage certain camera design and development functions. Flextronics would also manage the operations and logistics services for Kodak’s digital still cameras. Kodak continues to develop the high-level system design, product look and feel and user experience, and conducts advanced research and development for its digital still cameras.
Under the agreement, Kodak divested its entire digital camera manufacturing operations to Flextronics; assembly, production, and testing. Flextronics thus acquired a significant portion of the Kodak Digital Product Center, Japan, Ltd. (“KDPC”) in Chino and Yokohama, Japan, (camera design functions and employees) and Kodak Electronics Products, Shanghai Co. Ltd. (“KEPS”) in China (camera manufacturing, assembly, warehousing, and employees). Approximately 550 Kodak personnel were transferred to Flextronics facilities.
The agreement served to drive profitability, efficiency, and streamline digital camera operations by bringing "camera products to market more quickly, with greater predictability, flexibility, and cost efficiency while maintaining the innovative ease-of-use for which the Kodak brand is renowned." He added that the new strategy would enable Kodak to sustain innovation be focusing on advanced development and other areas to achieve the greatest competitive differentiation and advantage.
Kodak would retain all intellectual property and patents as part of the transaction as well as Kodak trademarks, Kodak trade names, Kodak customers, customer information and customer relationships, Kodak feature specifications, Kodak digital camera designs and Kodak digital camera technologies.
Greg Westbrook, President of Flextronics' Consumer Digital market segment, was formerly General Manager of digital capture at Kodak.
2004 Kodak signed an exclusive long-term agreement with Lexar Media Inc. of Fremont, California to help market digital memory cards by putting its brand name on cards designed, manufactured and sold/distributed by Lexar such as Compact Flash and Secure Digital cards. The agreement was to give Kodak a broader role in a rapidly growing market. Terms of the agreement were not disclosed, however a source of revenue would be provided to Kodak. The agreement would also help Lexar to crack new channels of distribution worldwide. At the time, Lexar products were sold in about 48,000 retail outlets, whereas Kodak was doing business with a half-million storefronts in roughly 70 nations.
Kodak has been widely criticized by environmentalists and researchers as one of the worst polluters in the United States. According to scorecard.org, a web site which collects information on corporate pollution, Kodak is the worst polluter in New York state, releasing 4,433,749 pounds (2,011,115 kg) of chemicals into air and water supply.
The Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts, which compiled the Toxic 100, ranked Kodak the seventh largest polluter in the United States in 2002. In 2004, the Citizens' Environmental Coalition's (CEC) of New York awarded Kodak one of its "Dirty Dozen" awards to highlight its consistently high rates of pollution.
However, in 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) granted Kodak the EnergyStar Sustained Excellence Award for "outstanding and continued leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions through superior energy management."
Kodak details its annual progress in global sustainability, as well as health, safety, and environment, in its Global Sustainability report.
Kodak announced, on January 10, 2007, an agreement to sell its Health Group Onex Healthcare Holdings, Inc., a subsidiary of Toronto-based Onex Corporation for $2.55 billion. The sale was completed May 1. Kodak received $2.35 billion in cash, and would receive up to $200 million in additional future payments if Onex achieved certain returns with the Health Group investment. Kodak used the proceeds to fully repay its approximately $1.15 billion of secured term debt, and is studying options for the remaining cash as it sharpens strategic focus on consumer and professional imaging and the graphic communications industry. About 8,100 Kodak Health Group employees transferred to the Onex-acquired business, continuing under the name Carestream Health, Inc. Included in the sale are manufacturing operations focused on the production of health imaging products, as well as an office building in Rochester, N.Y. Kodak’s Health Group had revenue of $2.54 billion for the latest 12 reported months (through September 30, 2006). It was a worldwide leader in information technology, molecular imaging systems, medical and dental imaging; including digital x-ray capture, medical printers, and x-ray film. Onex Corporation is a diversified company and one of Canada’s largest corporations, with global operations in health care, service, manufacturing and technology industries. The health care operations include emergency care facilities and diagnostic imaging clinics. Goldman, Sachs & Co. acted as financial advisor to Kodak on the sale of its Health Group and Sullivan & Cromwell provided legal counsel. Lazard Freres & Co. provided a fairness opinion in relation to the transaction.
On April 19, 2007, Kodak announced it had reached a deal to sell its Light Management Film group (a portion of its display business) to Rohm and Haas Co., based in Philadelphia. Light management film is used as layers on flat panel TVs and displays to improve effectiveness and control brightness. The group comprised 125 workers worldwide, with about 100 located in Rochester. Rohm and Haas would license technology and purchase equipment from Kodak, and lease Building 318 at Kodak Park. The sale price was not disclosed.
Kodak's chemical subsidiary, Tennessee Eastman, was spun off as a separate corporation, Eastman Chemical. Tennessee Eastman had been founded in 1920 by George Eastman to provide Kodak with the chemicals needed for its film-based photography business. Since the spin-off, Eastman Chemical has diversified its product portfolio, and is now a Fortune 500 corporation in its own right.
Better Business Bureau expulsion proceedings
On 26 March 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) announced that Eastman Kodak had advised it that the company was resigning its national membership in the wake of expulsion proceedings initiated by the CBBB Board of Directors. In 2006, Kodak had notified the BBB of Upstate New York that it would no longer accept or respond to consumer complaints submitted by them. In prior years, Kodak had responded by offering consumers an adjustment or an explanation of the company’s position. The BBB file contains consumer complaints of problems with repairs of Kodak digital cameras, as well as difficulty communicating with Kodak customer service. Among other complaints, consumers say that their cameras broke and they were charged for repairs when the failure was not the result of any damage or abuse. Some say their cameras failed again after being repaired.
Kodak said its customer service and customer privacy teams concluded that 99 percent of all complaints forwarded by the BBB already had been handled directly with the customer. Brian O’Connor, Kodak chief privacy officer, said the company was surprised by the news release distributed by the Better Business Bureau:
It is inaccurate in the facts presented as well as those the BBB chose to omit. Ironically, we ultimately decided to resign our membership because we were extremely unhappy with the customer service we received from the local office of the BBB. After years of unproductive discussions with the local office regarding their Web site postings about Kodak, which in our view were consistently inaccurate, we came to the conclusion that their process added no value to our own. Our commitment to our customers is unwavering. That will not change. What has changed is that, for us, the BBB’s customer complaint process has become redundant, given the multiple and immediate ways that customers have to address their concerns directly with Kodak.-Kodak
Kodak & Apple Battle
In 2010, Apple filed its patent-infringement claim against Kodak. On May 12, 2011, Judge Robert Rogers rejected Apple's claims that two of its patents on digital photography were being violated by Kodak.
On July 1, 2011, the U.S. International Trade Commission reversed in part a January decision by an administrative law judge that neither Apple nor Research in Motion had infringed upon Kodak's patents. The ITC remanded the matter for further proceedings before the ALJ.